a diary at the time of the survey or having


Although the many benefits of writing on mental and physical health mentioned below should be taken into consideration when one is investigating the effects of diary-keeping behaviours of teacher trainees, findings associated with previous research that focused specifically on diarykeeping behaviour have a special importance for the present study. The most striking findings regarding diary-keeping behaviours underlined the effects of gender and developmental stage. Gender was found to be related with the prevalence of diary-keeping behaviour. For instance, Burt (1994b) found that 51.9% of the males in an Australian student sample (N=52), and 77.2% of the females (N=145), were diarists. In two other surveys conducted on university students , Burt ( 1 994a) replicated these findings. According to the results of his first survey, 32% of the males and 72.6% of the females reported keeping a diary at the time of the survey or having kept a diary in past. Similarly, in his second survey, 67.7% of males and 90.9% of female subjects reported keeping a diary at the time of the survey or having kept a diary in past. The motive for diary-keeping behaviour was also tiffany pendants on sale found to differ across gender groups. Males tend to keep a diary as an aid in recalling past and future events, while females use diaries for emotional expression. Hence, gender appears to be both a predictor and a motive for diary-keeping (Burt, 1994a).

In addition to gender differences, the existing literature also revealed the effects of developmental stage on the prevalence of diary-keeping behaviour. Associated with the necessity of coping with many significant life changes, such as tiffany rings for sale physiological changes, sexuality, and opposite-sex relationships during adolescence, diarykeeping seems particularly prevalent during this period of life (Burt, 1994a). Moreover, studies on American introductory psychology students indicated that about half of the students reported they were diarists (Rubin, 1982, Thomson, 1982). These findings were replicated in a more recent study on Australian university students (Burt, 1994a). However, whether these findings remain valid in nonwestern countries is still a challenging topic.

As a result of the positive paradigm in the field of psychology (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000), the investigation of happiness has attracted attention since the middle of the twentieth century. Happiness has been investigated especially by using the term subjective well-being (SWB) and explained by a tripartite model constituted by life satisfaction (the cognitive aspect), the presence of positive affect, and the absence of negative affect (the affective aspects) (Diener, 1984; Diener, Suh, & Oishi, 1997; Myers & Diener, 1995). Over tiffany earrings for sale the years, several studies have examined the correlates of happiness, revealing weak relationships wim demographic variables such as education, edinic status, and age (Campbell, Con vers, & Rodgers, 1976) but very strong positive relationships with some psychological characteristics such as self-esteem (Ayyash-Abdo & Alamuddin, 2007; Diener, et al., 1995), optimism (Aspinwall & Taylor, 1992; Lucas, Diener, & Suh, 1996; Scheier & Carver, 1992), extraversion (Diener, et al., 1992), personal control (Larson, 1989), and fulfilling one's goals (Emmons, 1996; Ryan et al., 1996).

发表留言

秘密留言

sidetitle搜索栏sidetitle
sidetitleRSS链接sidetitle
sidetitle链接sidetitle
sidetitle加为好友sidetitle

和此人成为好友