stability that pan-African currency union offers.

The pressing need is for far greater integration between countries. Initiatives like the Union Economique et Monétaire Ouest Africaine (UEMOA, in English,

the Economie Community of West African States), African Monetary Union, the Communauté Économique et Monétaire de l'Afrique Centrale (CEMAC or, in

English, the tiffany pendants and Monetary Community of Central

Africa) and of course the African Economic Community are essential in reducing barriers to trade, organising pan-continental logistics projects and for moving

towards the reduced trade costs and increased economic stability that pan-African currency union offers.

One way of improving governance of the value chain, from the point of view of primary goods exporters, is to follow the
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of Iran, Qatar and Russia and form a cartel.The

"Gas G3" nations control some 60% of the world's supply of liquefied natural gas and greater cooperation between these exporters allows them to

control supply, and thus price, in their perceived interests. This approach has also been utilised by Algeria, Angola, Libya and Nigeria - all members of the

powerful OPEC cartel.

Take the example of Côte d'Ivoire, a tiffany pendants which produces 40%

of the world's cocoa and has benefited from a price rally as a result of a difficult harvest. The country's earnings from its oligopolist market position (it is worth

bearing in mind that in many countries the definition of a monopoly position requires only a 25% market share) are around $2bn a year. Yet the global chocolate

industry, which is entirely contingent on this raw material, yields some $75bn a year.

Recognition of the importance of addressing value chain issues is tiffany

. Robert Zoellick, the World Bank President, in a discussion about the under-funded World Food Programme said: "It's not only a

question of more money for research and development in tiffany

, but also on the value chain. Some developing countries lose 50% of their food supply before it reaches the consumer."