examining the potential for integrating the livestock

The UN's Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) has already conducted studies into value-chain management in recognition of the importance of this

kind of thinking to economic development. In a study examining the potential for integrating the livestock and crop value chains, focusing on
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seed cotton production and Kenyan maize production,

conclusions were reached that have implications beyond just those industries. In a comparison of two public goods necessary for value production, electricity

and inland transport costs, African states have to bear relatively much higher costs which hinder both value creation and competitiveness. The case studies

found low labour productivity and low yield rates to be tiffany

problematic factors. This was attributed to the large proportion of smallholdings and also to the lack of irrigation.

As Jacques Diouf, UN Food and Agriculture director general, pointed out, only 4% of sub-Tiffany Bracelets Africa is irrigated. These points underscore the potential for Africa to produce much more food. This remains

vital since, despite the recent correction, food prices are still 40% up on two years ago.

The report's conclusions are worth heeding. Important factors for harnessing the benefits of the value chain are competitively priced and high quality

infrastructure. This is an objective best realised through national, regional and continental cooperation and integration towards producing both the tangible

(roads, rail, etc) and the intangible (customs unions, unified currency zones, etc) elements required. However, even in the absence of these factors,

improvements can be made. Whether by rural farmers consolidating tiffany

output or by metropolitan firms transforming their supply chains, the benefits of this kind of analysis are clear. The question is whether

your country or company is asking these questions and implementing solutions already or not.

Organisation is key. Upgrading within the value tiffany bracelets requires

the increasing of efficiency, technical and product innovation, reappraising the mix of activities a company is involved in and looking at information flows. Trust is

crucial too, encouraging companies in a given value chain to move towards greater cooperation and work collectively in their approach to government. Much

work is needed but the potential gains are almost unimaginable.