tiffany was less the result of human genius

The spread and deepening of social networks connecting ever larger numbers of people in exchanges of all kinds is a central theme in human history. The transition from hunter-gatherer societies to early agriculture, to the first cities and towns, to the first states inscribes an arc of the increasing complexification and deepening of social networks. The growth of population was one manifestation of this process, though it might be more strongly or loosely linked. Jared Diamond argues that the invention and diffusion of innovations of all kinds (technological as well as tiffany) was less the result of human genius, or the superiority of particular societies, than it was of the operation of social networks. 55 A key element in technological development, he suggests, is the extent to which a given society on a given continent is networked with other societies, or insulated by geographic and ecological barriers from them. William and John McNeill introduce the concept of social networks as the central theme in human history in The Human Web.56 Sociologist Christopher Chase-Dunn provides a suggestive analysis of how social networks operated in the diffusion of a variety of material and cultural goods over the course of human reduced tiffany pendants. As networks grew, as David Christian suggests in Maps of Time, they began to exert an attractive force on surroundings societies, in something analogous to a gravitational field.57 The larger the community or civilization, and the closer it was to surrounding communities, the greater its attractive power. Christian uses the concept of networks to explore the deep history of humanity. He traces the role of processes of complexification and intensification as related sides of the same autocatalytic process in human affairs.

The idea of networks and their topology, shape, and centers of gravity provides a way of rethinking the role of the lands of the Islam ("Bilad al-Islam") in the history of Afroeurasia between 650 and 1750 c.e., for the lands of Islam were not only geographically situated in the middle of the Great Arid Zone, a major interconnected ecological sale tiffany necklaces that ran between latitudes from the Atlantic to China. The Middle East was also at the center of the network that linked the Indo-Mediterranean region to the rest of Eurasia. Over time, the topology of the web underwent a number of important shifts, as did its center of gravity. Between circa 3000 b.c.e. and circa 1000 c.e., the Afroeurasian network was centered upon the Indo-Mediterranean region. From 1000 c.e. to 1500 c.e. its center of gravity shifted to East Asia, and it expanded in size to embrace Inner Eurasia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and much of Africa (even as its geographical center remained in the Middle East). At some point after 1500 (scholars differ as to just when this happened) the center of shop for tiffany accessories of the Afroeurasian network shifted to the North Atlantic region.